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!**********************************************************************
! Copyright 1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2005,2007,2008,2009,2010         *
! Andreas Stohl, Petra Seibert, A. Frank, Gerhard Wotawa,             *
! Caroline Forster, Sabine Eckhardt, John Burkhart, Harald Sodemann   *
!                                                                     *
! This file is part of FLEXPART.                                      *
!                                                                     *
! FLEXPART is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify    *
! it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by*
! the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or   *
! (at your option) any later version.                                 *
!                                                                     *
! FLEXPART is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,         *
! but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of      *
! MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the       *
! GNU General Public License for more details.                        *
!                                                                     *
! You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License   *
! along with FLEXPART.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.   *
!**********************************************************************

subroutine verttransform(n,uuh,vvh,wwh,pvh)
  !                         i  i   i   i   i
  !*****************************************************************************
  !                                                                            *
  !     This subroutine transforms temperature, dew point temperature and      *
  !     wind components from eta to meter coordinates.                         *
  !     The vertical wind component is transformed from Pa/s to m/s using      *
  !     the conversion factor pinmconv.                                        *
  !     In addition, this routine calculates vertical density gradients        *
  !     needed for the parameterization of the turbulent velocities.           *
  !                                                                            *
  !     Author: A. Stohl, G. Wotawa                                            *
  !                                                                            *
  !     12 August 1996                                                         *
  !     Update: 16 January 1998                                                *
  !                                                                            *
  !     Major update: 17 February 1999                                         *
  !     by G. Wotawa                                                           *
  !     CHANGE 17/11/2005 Caroline Forster, NCEP GFS version                   *
  !                                                                            *
  !   - Vertical levels for u, v and w are put together                        *
  !   - Slope correction for vertical velocity: Modification of calculation    *
  !     procedure                                                              *
  !                                                                            *
  !*****************************************************************************
  !  Changes, Bernd C. Krueger, Feb. 2001:
  !   Variables tth and qvh (on eta coordinates) from common block
  !*****************************************************************************
  !                                                                            *
  ! Variables:                                                                 *
  ! nx,ny,nz                        field dimensions in x,y and z direction    *
  ! uu(0:nxmax,0:nymax,nzmax,2)     wind components in x-direction [m/s]       *
  ! vv(0:nxmax,0:nymax,nzmax,2)     wind components in y-direction [m/s]       *
  ! ww(0:nxmax,0:nymax,nzmax,2)     wind components in z-direction [deltaeta/s]*
  ! tt(0:nxmax,0:nymax,nzmax,2)     temperature [K]                            *
  ! pv(0:nxmax,0:nymax,nzmax,2)     potential voriticity (pvu)                 *
  ! ps(0:nxmax,0:nymax,2)           surface pressure [Pa]                      *
  ! clouds(0:nxmax,0:nymax,0:nzmax,2) cloud field for wet deposition           *
  !                                                                            *
  !*****************************************************************************

  use par_mod
  use com_mod
  use cmapf_mod

  implicit none

  integer :: ix,jy,kz,iz,n,kmin,kl,klp,ix1,jy1,ixp,jyp,ixm,jym
  integer :: rain_cloud_above,kz_inv
  real :: f_qvsat,pressure
  real :: rh,lsp,convp
  real :: uvzlev(nuvzmax),rhoh(nuvzmax),pinmconv(nzmax)
  real :: ew,pint,tv,tvold,pold,dz1,dz2,dz,ui,vi
  real :: xlon,ylat,xlonr,dzdx,dzdy
  real :: dzdx1,dzdx2,dzdy1,dzdy2
  real :: uuaux,vvaux,uupolaux,vvpolaux,ddpol,ffpol,wdummy
  real :: uuh(0:nxmax-1,0:nymax-1,nuvzmax)
  real :: vvh(0:nxmax-1,0:nymax-1,nuvzmax)
  real :: pvh(0:nxmax-1,0:nymax-1,nuvzmax)
  real :: wwh(0:nxmax-1,0:nymax-1,nwzmax)
  real :: wzlev(nwzmax),uvwzlev(0:nxmax-1,0:nymax-1,nzmax)
  real,parameter :: const=r_air/ga

  ! NCEP version
  integer :: llev, i

  logical :: init = .true.


  !*************************************************************************
  ! If verttransform is called the first time, initialize heights of the   *
  ! z levels in meter. The heights are the heights of model levels, where  *
  ! u,v,T and qv are given, and of the interfaces, where w is given. So,   *
  ! the vertical resolution in the z system is doubled. As reference point,*
  ! the lower left corner of the grid is used.                             *
  ! Unlike in the eta system, no difference between heights for u,v and    *
  ! heights for w exists.                                                  *
  !*************************************************************************

  if (init) then

  ! Search for a point with high surface pressure (i.e. not above significant topography)
  ! Then, use this point to construct a reference z profile, to be used at all times
  !*****************************************************************************

    do jy=0,nymin1
      do ix=0,nxmin1
        if (ps(ix,jy,1,n).gt.100000.) then
          ixm=ix
          jym=jy
          goto 3
        endif
      end do
    end do
3   continue


    tvold=tt2(ixm,jym,1,n)*(1.+0.378*ew(td2(ixm,jym,1,n))/ &
         ps(ixm,jym,1,n))
    pold=ps(ixm,jym,1,n)
    height(1)=0.

    do kz=2,nuvz
      pint=akz(kz)+bkz(kz)*ps(ixm,jym,1,n)
      tv=tth(ixm,jym,kz,n)*(1.+0.608*qvh(ixm,jym,kz,n))


  ! NOTE: In FLEXPART versions up to 4.0, the number of model levels was doubled
  ! upon the transformation to z levels. In order to save computer memory, this is
  ! not done anymore in the standard version. However, this option can still be
  ! switched on by replacing the following lines with those below, that are
  ! currently commented out.
  ! Note that two more changes are necessary in this subroutine below.
  ! One change is also necessary in gridcheck.f, and another one in verttransform_nests.
  !*****************************************************************************

      if (abs(tv-tvold).gt.0.2) then
        height(kz)= &
             height(kz-1)+const*log(pold/pint)* &
             (tv-tvold)/log(tv/tvold)
      else
        height(kz)=height(kz-1)+ &
             const*log(pold/pint)*tv
      endif

  ! Switch on following lines to use doubled vertical resolution
  !*************************************************************
  !    if (abs(tv-tvold).gt.0.2) then
  !      height((kz-1)*2)=
  !    +      height(max((kz-2)*2,1))+const*log(pold/pint)*
  !    +      (tv-tvold)/log(tv/tvold)
  !    else
  !      height((kz-1)*2)=height(max((kz-2)*2,1))+
  !    +      const*log(pold/pint)*tv
  !    endif
  ! End doubled vertical resolution

      tvold=tv
      pold=pint
    end do


  ! Switch on following lines to use doubled vertical resolution
  !*************************************************************
  !  do 7 kz=3,nz-1,2
  !    height(kz)=0.5*(height(kz-1)+height(kz+1))
  !  height(nz)=height(nz-1)+height(nz-1)-height(nz-2)
  ! End doubled vertical resolution


  ! Determine highest levels that can be within PBL
  !************************************************

    do kz=1,nz
      if (height(kz).gt.hmixmax) then
        nmixz=kz
        goto 9
      endif
    end do
9   continue

  ! Do not repeat initialization of the Cartesian z grid
  !*****************************************************

    init=.false.

  endif


  ! Loop over the whole grid
  !*************************

  do jy=0,nymin1
    do ix=0,nxmin1

  ! NCEP version: find first level above ground
      llev = 0
      do i=1,nuvz
       if (ps(ix,jy,1,n).lt.akz(i)) llev=i
      end do
       llev = llev+1
       if (llev.gt.nuvz-2) llev = nuvz-2
  !     if (llev.eq.nuvz-2) write(*,*) 'verttransform
  !    +WARNING: LLEV eq NUZV-2'
  ! NCEP version


  ! compute height of pressure levels above ground
  !***********************************************

      tvold=tth(ix,jy,llev,n)*(1.+0.608*qvh(ix,jy,llev,n))
      pold=akz(llev)
      uvzlev(llev)=0.
      wzlev(llev)=0.
      uvwzlev(ix,jy,llev)=0.
      rhoh(llev)=pold/(r_air*tvold)

      do kz=llev+1,nuvz
        pint=akz(kz)+bkz(kz)*ps(ix,jy,1,n)
        tv=tth(ix,jy,kz,n)*(1.+0.608*qvh(ix,jy,kz,n))
        rhoh(kz)=pint/(r_air*tv)

        if (abs(tv-tvold).gt.0.2) then
          uvzlev(kz)=uvzlev(kz-1)+const*log(pold/pint)* &
               (tv-tvold)/log(tv/tvold)
        else
          uvzlev(kz)=uvzlev(kz-1)+const*log(pold/pint)*tv
        endif
        wzlev(kz)=uvzlev(kz)
        uvwzlev(ix,jy,kz)=uvzlev(kz)

        tvold=tv
        pold=pint
      end do


  ! Switch on following lines to use doubled vertical resolution
  ! Switch off the three lines above.
  !*************************************************************
  !22          uvwzlev(ix,jy,(kz-1)*2)=uvzlev(kz)
  !     do 23 kz=2,nwz
  !23          uvwzlev(ix,jy,(kz-1)*2+1)=wzlev(kz)
  ! End doubled vertical resolution

  ! pinmconv=(h2-h1)/(p2-p1)

      pinmconv(llev)=(uvwzlev(ix,jy,llev+1)-uvwzlev(ix,jy,llev))/ &
           ((aknew(llev+1)+bknew(llev+1)*ps(ix,jy,1,n))- &
           (aknew(llev)+bknew(llev)*ps(ix,jy,1,n)))
      do kz=llev+1,nz-1
        pinmconv(kz)=(uvwzlev(ix,jy,kz+1)-uvwzlev(ix,jy,kz-1))/ &
             ((aknew(kz+1)+bknew(kz+1)*ps(ix,jy,1,n))- &
             (aknew(kz-1)+bknew(kz-1)*ps(ix,jy,1,n)))
      end do
      pinmconv(nz)=(uvwzlev(ix,jy,nz)-uvwzlev(ix,jy,nz-1))/ &
           ((aknew(nz)+bknew(nz)*ps(ix,jy,1,n))- &
           (aknew(nz-1)+bknew(nz-1)*ps(ix,jy,1,n)))


  ! Levels, where u,v,t and q are given
  !************************************

      uu(ix,jy,1,n)=uuh(ix,jy,llev)
      vv(ix,jy,1,n)=vvh(ix,jy,llev)
      tt(ix,jy,1,n)=tth(ix,jy,llev,n)
      qv(ix,jy,1,n)=qvh(ix,jy,llev,n)
      pv(ix,jy,1,n)=pvh(ix,jy,llev)
      rho(ix,jy,1,n)=rhoh(llev)
      pplev(ix,jy,1,n)=akz(llev)
      uu(ix,jy,nz,n)=uuh(ix,jy,nuvz)
      vv(ix,jy,nz,n)=vvh(ix,jy,nuvz)
      tt(ix,jy,nz,n)=tth(ix,jy,nuvz,n)
      qv(ix,jy,nz,n)=qvh(ix,jy,nuvz,n)
      pv(ix,jy,nz,n)=pvh(ix,jy,nuvz)
      rho(ix,jy,nz,n)=rhoh(nuvz)
      pplev(ix,jy,nz,n)=akz(nuvz)
      kmin=llev+1
      do iz=2,nz-1
        do kz=kmin,nuvz
          if(height(iz).gt.uvzlev(nuvz)) then
            uu(ix,jy,iz,n)=uu(ix,jy,nz,n)
            vv(ix,jy,iz,n)=vv(ix,jy,nz,n)
            tt(ix,jy,iz,n)=tt(ix,jy,nz,n)
            qv(ix,jy,iz,n)=qv(ix,jy,nz,n)
            pv(ix,jy,iz,n)=pv(ix,jy,nz,n)
            rho(ix,jy,iz,n)=rho(ix,jy,nz,n)
            pplev(ix,jy,iz,n)=pplev(ix,jy,nz,n)
            goto 30
          endif
          if ((height(iz).gt.uvzlev(kz-1)).and. &
               (height(iz).le.uvzlev(kz))) then
           dz1=height(iz)-uvzlev(kz-1)
           dz2=uvzlev(kz)-height(iz)
           dz=dz1+dz2
           uu(ix,jy,iz,n)=(uuh(ix,jy,kz-1)*dz2+uuh(ix,jy,kz)*dz1)/dz
           vv(ix,jy,iz,n)=(vvh(ix,jy,kz-1)*dz2+vvh(ix,jy,kz)*dz1)/dz
           tt(ix,jy,iz,n)=(tth(ix,jy,kz-1,n)*dz2 &
                +tth(ix,jy,kz,n)*dz1)/dz
           qv(ix,jy,iz,n)=(qvh(ix,jy,kz-1,n)*dz2 &
                +qvh(ix,jy,kz,n)*dz1)/dz
           pv(ix,jy,iz,n)=(pvh(ix,jy,kz-1)*dz2+pvh(ix,jy,kz)*dz1)/dz
           rho(ix,jy,iz,n)=(rhoh(kz-1)*dz2+rhoh(kz)*dz1)/dz
           pplev(ix,jy,iz,n)=(akz(kz-1)*dz2+akz(kz)*dz1)/dz
          endif
        end do
30      continue
      end do


  ! Levels, where w is given
  !*************************

      ww(ix,jy,1,n)=wwh(ix,jy,llev)*pinmconv(llev)
      ww(ix,jy,nz,n)=wwh(ix,jy,nwz)*pinmconv(nz)
      kmin=llev+1
      do iz=2,nz
        do kz=kmin,nwz
          if ((height(iz).gt.wzlev(kz-1)).and. &
               (height(iz).le.wzlev(kz))) then
           dz1=height(iz)-wzlev(kz-1)
           dz2=wzlev(kz)-height(iz)
           dz=dz1+dz2
           ww(ix,jy,iz,n)=(wwh(ix,jy,kz-1)*pinmconv(kz-1)*dz2 &
                +wwh(ix,jy,kz)*pinmconv(kz)*dz1)/dz

          endif
        end do
      end do


  ! Compute density gradients at intermediate levels
  !*************************************************

      drhodz(ix,jy,1,n)=(rho(ix,jy,2,n)-rho(ix,jy,1,n))/ &
           (height(2)-height(1))
      do kz=2,nz-1
        drhodz(ix,jy,kz,n)=(rho(ix,jy,kz+1,n)-rho(ix,jy,kz-1,n))/ &
             (height(kz+1)-height(kz-1))
      end do
      drhodz(ix,jy,nz,n)=drhodz(ix,jy,nz-1,n)

    end do
  end do


  !****************************************************************
  ! Compute slope of eta levels in windward direction and resulting
  ! vertical wind correction
  !****************************************************************

  do jy=1,ny-2
    do ix=1,nx-2

  ! NCEP version: find first level above ground
      llev = 0
      do i=1,nuvz
       if (ps(ix,jy,1,n).lt.akz(i)) llev=i
      end do
       llev = llev+1
       if (llev.gt.nuvz-2) llev = nuvz-2
  !     if (llev.eq.nuvz-2) write(*,*) 'verttransform
  !    +WARNING: LLEV eq NUZV-2'
  ! NCEP version

      kmin=llev+1
      do iz=2,nz-1

        ui=uu(ix,jy,iz,n)*dxconst/cos((real(jy)*dy+ylat0)*pi180)
        vi=vv(ix,jy,iz,n)*dyconst

        do kz=kmin,nz
          if ((height(iz).gt.uvwzlev(ix,jy,kz-1)).and. &
               (height(iz).le.uvwzlev(ix,jy,kz))) then
            dz1=height(iz)-uvwzlev(ix,jy,kz-1)
            dz2=uvwzlev(ix,jy,kz)-height(iz)
            dz=dz1+dz2
            kl=kz-1
            klp=kz
            goto 47
          endif
        end do

47      ix1=ix-1
        jy1=jy-1
        ixp=ix+1
        jyp=jy+1

        dzdx1=(uvwzlev(ixp,jy,kl)-uvwzlev(ix1,jy,kl))/2.
        dzdx2=(uvwzlev(ixp,jy,klp)-uvwzlev(ix1,jy,klp))/2.
        dzdx=(dzdx1*dz2+dzdx2*dz1)/dz

        dzdy1=(uvwzlev(ix,jyp,kl)-uvwzlev(ix,jy1,kl))/2.
        dzdy2=(uvwzlev(ix,jyp,klp)-uvwzlev(ix,jy1,klp))/2.
        dzdy=(dzdy1*dz2+dzdy2*dz1)/dz

        ww(ix,jy,iz,n)=ww(ix,jy,iz,n)+(dzdx*ui+dzdy*vi)

      end do

    end do
  end do


  ! If north pole is in the domain, calculate wind velocities in polar
  ! stereographic coordinates
  !*******************************************************************

  if (nglobal) then
    do jy=int(switchnorthg)-2,nymin1
      ylat=ylat0+real(jy)*dy
      do ix=0,nxmin1
        xlon=xlon0+real(ix)*dx
        do iz=1,nz
          call cc2gll(northpolemap,ylat,xlon,uu(ix,jy,iz,n), &
               vv(ix,jy,iz,n),uupol(ix,jy,iz,n), &
               vvpol(ix,jy,iz,n))
        end do
      end do
    end do


    do iz=1,nz

  ! CALCULATE FFPOL, DDPOL FOR CENTRAL GRID POINT
      xlon=xlon0+real(nx/2-1)*dx
      xlonr=xlon*pi/180.
      ffpol=sqrt(uu(nx/2-1,nymin1,iz,n)**2+ &
           vv(nx/2-1,nymin1,iz,n)**2)
      if(vv(nx/2-1,nymin1,iz,n).lt.0.) then
        ddpol=atan(uu(nx/2-1,nymin1,iz,n)/ &
             vv(nx/2-1,nymin1,iz,n))-xlonr
      elseif (vv(nx/2-1,nymin1,iz,n).gt.0.) then
        ddpol=pi+atan(uu(nx/2-1,nymin1,iz,n)/ &
             vv(nx/2-1,nymin1,iz,n))-xlonr
      else
        ddpol=pi/2-xlonr
      endif
      if(ddpol.lt.0.) ddpol=2.0*pi+ddpol
      if(ddpol.gt.2.0*pi) ddpol=ddpol-2.0*pi

  ! CALCULATE U,V FOR 180 DEG, TRANSFORM TO POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC GRID
      xlon=180.0
      xlonr=xlon*pi/180.
      ylat=90.0
      uuaux=-ffpol*sin(xlonr+ddpol)
      vvaux=-ffpol*cos(xlonr+ddpol)
      call cc2gll(northpolemap,ylat,xlon,uuaux,vvaux,uupolaux, &
           vvpolaux)

      jy=nymin1
      do ix=0,nxmin1
        uupol(ix,jy,iz,n)=uupolaux
        vvpol(ix,jy,iz,n)=vvpolaux
      end do
    end do


  ! Fix: Set W at pole to the zonally averaged W of the next equator-
  ! ward parallel of latitude

  do iz=1,nz
      wdummy=0.
      jy=ny-2
      do ix=0,nxmin1
        wdummy=wdummy+ww(ix,jy,iz,n)
      end do
      wdummy=wdummy/real(nx)
      jy=nymin1
      do ix=0,nxmin1
        ww(ix,jy,iz,n)=wdummy
      end do
  end do

  endif


  ! If south pole is in the domain, calculate wind velocities in polar
  ! stereographic coordinates
  !*******************************************************************

  if (sglobal) then
    do jy=0,int(switchsouthg)+3
      ylat=ylat0+real(jy)*dy
      do ix=0,nxmin1
        xlon=xlon0+real(ix)*dx
        do iz=1,nz
          call cc2gll(southpolemap,ylat,xlon,uu(ix,jy,iz,n), &
               vv(ix,jy,iz,n),uupol(ix,jy,iz,n), &
               vvpol(ix,jy,iz,n))
        end do
      end do
    end do

    do iz=1,nz

  ! CALCULATE FFPOL, DDPOL FOR CENTRAL GRID POINT
      xlon=xlon0+real(nx/2-1)*dx
      xlonr=xlon*pi/180.
      ffpol=sqrt(uu(nx/2-1,0,iz,n)**2+ &
           vv(nx/2-1,0,iz,n)**2)
      if(vv(nx/2-1,0,iz,n).lt.0.) then
        ddpol=atan(uu(nx/2-1,0,iz,n)/ &
             vv(nx/2-1,0,iz,n))+xlonr
      elseif (vv(nx/2-1,0,iz,n).gt.0.) then
        ddpol=pi+atan(uu(nx/2-1,0,iz,n)/ &
             vv(nx/2-1,0,iz,n))-xlonr
      else
        ddpol=pi/2-xlonr
      endif
      if(ddpol.lt.0.) ddpol=2.0*pi+ddpol
      if(ddpol.gt.2.0*pi) ddpol=ddpol-2.0*pi

  ! CALCULATE U,V FOR 180 DEG, TRANSFORM TO POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC GRID
      xlon=180.0
      xlonr=xlon*pi/180.
      ylat=-90.0
      uuaux=+ffpol*sin(xlonr-ddpol)
      vvaux=-ffpol*cos(xlonr-ddpol)
      call cc2gll(northpolemap,ylat,xlon,uuaux,vvaux,uupolaux, &
           vvpolaux)

      jy=0
      do ix=0,nxmin1
        uupol(ix,jy,iz,n)=uupolaux
        vvpol(ix,jy,iz,n)=vvpolaux
      end do
    end do


  ! Fix: Set W at pole to the zonally averaged W of the next equator-
  ! ward parallel of latitude

    do iz=1,nz
      wdummy=0.
      jy=1
      do ix=0,nxmin1
        wdummy=wdummy+ww(ix,jy,iz,n)
      end do
      wdummy=wdummy/real(nx)
      jy=0
      do ix=0,nxmin1
        ww(ix,jy,iz,n)=wdummy
      end do
    end do
  endif


  !   write (*,*) 'initializing clouds, n:',n,nymin1,nxmin1,nz
  !   create a cloud and rainout/washout field, clouds occur where rh>80%
  !   total cloudheight is stored at level 0
  do jy=0,nymin1
    do ix=0,nxmin1
      rain_cloud_above=0
      lsp=lsprec(ix,jy,1,n)
      convp=convprec(ix,jy,1,n)
      cloudsh(ix,jy,n)=0
      do kz_inv=1,nz-1
         kz=nz-kz_inv+1
         pressure=rho(ix,jy,kz,n)*r_air*tt(ix,jy,kz,n)
         rh=qv(ix,jy,kz,n)/f_qvsat(pressure,tt(ix,jy,kz,n))
         clouds(ix,jy,kz,n)=0
         if (rh.gt.0.8) then ! in cloud
            if ((lsp.gt.0.01).or.(convp.gt.0.01)) then ! cloud and precipitation
               rain_cloud_above=1
               cloudsh(ix,jy,n)=cloudsh(ix,jy,n)+ &
                    height(kz)-height(kz-1)
               if (lsp.ge.convp) then
                  clouds(ix,jy,kz,n)=3 ! lsp dominated rainout
               else
                  clouds(ix,jy,kz,n)=2 ! convp dominated rainout
               endif
            else ! no precipitation
                  clouds(ix,jy,kz,n)=1 ! cloud
            endif
         else ! no cloud
            if (rain_cloud_above.eq.1) then ! scavenging
               if (lsp.ge.convp) then
                  clouds(ix,jy,kz,n)=5 ! lsp dominated washout
               else
                  clouds(ix,jy,kz,n)=4 ! convp dominated washout
               endif
            endif
         endif
      end do
    end do
  end do


end subroutine verttransform